|Method (expand all | collapse all)||Flow outliers (%)|
|Deep Rigid Instance Scene Flow (Apr 2019)||4.73%|
In this paper we tackle the problem of scene flow estimation in the context of self-driving. We leverage deep learning techniques as well as strong priors as in our application domain the motion of the scene can be composed by the motion of the robot and the 3D motion of the actors in the scene. We formulate the problem as energy minimization in a deep structured model, which can be solved efficiently in the GPU by unrolling a Gaussian-Newton solver. Our experiments in the challenging KITTI scene flow dataset show that we outperform the state-of-the-art by a very large margin, while being 800 times faster.
|Probabilistic Pixel-Adaptive Refinement Networks (Mar 2020)||6.06%|
Encoder-decoder networks have found widespread use in various dense prediction tasks. However, the strong reduction of spatial resolution in the encoder leads to a loss of location information as well as boundary artifacts. To address this, image-adaptive post-processing methods have shown beneficial by leveraging the high-resolution input image(s) as guidance data. We extend such approaches by considering an important orthogonal source of information: the network's confidence in its own predictions. We introduce probabilistic pixel-adaptive convolutions (PPACs), which not only depend on image guidance data for filtering, but also respect the reliability of per-pixel predictions. As such, PPACs allow for image-adaptive smoothing and simultaneously propagating pixels of high confidence into less reliable regions, while respecting object boundaries. We demonstrate their utility in refinement networks for optical flow and semantic segmentation, where PPACs lead to a clear reduction in boundary artifacts. Moreover, our proposed refinement step is able to substantially improve the accuracy on various widely used benchmarks.
|MaskFlownet: Asymmetric Feature Matching with Learnable Occlusion Mask (Mar 2020)||6.11%|
Feature warping is a core technique in optical flow estimation; however, the ambiguity caused by occluded areas during warping is a major problem that remains unsolved. In this paper, we propose an asymmetric occlusion-aware feature matching module, which can learn a rough occlusion mask that filters useless (occluded) areas immediately after feature warping without any explicit supervision. The proposed module can be easily integrated into end-to-end network architectures and enjoys performance gains while introducing negligible computational cost. The learned occlusion mask can be further fed into a subsequent network cascade with dual feature pyramids with which we achieve state-of-the-art performance. At the time of submission, our method, called MaskFlownet, surpasses all published optical flow methods on the MPI Sintel, KITTI 2012 and 2015 benchmarks. Code is available at https://github.com/microsoft/MaskFlownet.
|Bounding Boxes, Segmentations and Object Coordinates: How Important Is Recognition for 3D Scene Flow Estimation in Autonomous Driving Scenarios? (ICCV 2017)||6.22%|
Existing methods for 3D scene flow estimation often fail in the presence of large displacement or local ambiguities, e.g., at texture-less or reflective surfaces. However, these challenges are omnipresent in dynamic road scenes, which is the focus of this work. Our main contribution is to overcome these 3D motion estimation problems by exploiting recognition. In particular, we investigate the importance of recognition granularity, from coarse 2D bounding box estimates over 2D instance segmentations to fine-grained 3D object part predictions. We compute these cues using CNNs trained on a newly annotated dataset of stereo images and integrate them into a CRF-based model for robust 3D scene flow estimation - an approach we term Instance Scene Flow. We analyze the importance of each recognition cue in an ablation study and observe that the instance segmentation cue is by far strongest, in our setting. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on the challenging KITTI 2015 scene flow benchmark where we achieve state-of-the-art performance at the time of submission.
|Volumetric Correspondence Networks for Optical Flow (NIPS 2019)||6.30%|
Many classic tasks in vision – such as the estimation of optical flow or stereo disparities – can be cast as dense correspondence matching. Well-known techniques for doing so make use of a cost volume, typically a 4D tensor of match costs between all pixels in a 2D image and their potential matches in a 2D search window. State of-the-art (SOTA) deep networks for flow/stereo make use of such volumetric representations as internal layers. However, such layers require significant amounts of memory and compute, making them cumbersome to use in practice. As a result, SOTA networks also employ various heuristics designed to limit volumetric processing, leading to limited accuracy and overfitting. Instead, we introduce several simple modifications that dramatically simplify the use of volumetric layers - (1) volumetric encoder-decoder architectures that efficiently capture large receptive fields, (2) multi-channel cost volumes that capture multi-dimensional notions of pixel similarities, and finally, (3) separable volumetric filtering that significantly reduces computation and parameters while preserving accuracy. Our innovations dramatically improve accuracy over SOTA on standard benchmarks while being significantly easier to work with - training converges in 7X fewer iterations, and most importantly, our networks generalize across correspondence tasks. On-the-fly adaptation of search windows allows us to repurpose optical flow networks for stereo (and vice versa), and can also be used to implement adaptive networks that increase search window sizes on-demand.
|Upgrading Optical Flow to 3D Scene Flow through Optical Expansion (CVPR 2020)||6.56%|
|ScopeFlow: Dynamic Scene Scoping for Optical Flow (Feb 2020)||6.82%|
|Cascaded Scene Flow Prediction using Semantic Segmentation (Jul 2017)||7.14%|
|A Fusion Approach for Multi-Frame Optical Flow Estimation (Oct 2018)||7.17%|
|Models Matter, So Does Training: An Empirical Study of CNNs for Optical Flow Estimation (Sep 2018)||7.90%|
|SelFlow: Self-Supervised Learning of Optical Flow (Apr 2019)||8.42%|
|LiteFlowNet: A Lightweight Convolutional Neural Network for Optical Flow Estimation (May 2018)||9.38%|
|PWC-Net: CNNs for Optical Flow Using Pyramid, Warping, and Cost Volume (Sep 2017)||9.60%|
|Continual Occlusions and Optical Flow Estimation (Nov 2018)||10.03%|