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Street View House Numbers dataset.
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Ekin D. Cubuk, Barret Zoph, Dandelion Mane, Vijay Vasudevan, Quoc V. Le
In this paper, we take a closer look at data augmentation for images, and describe a simple procedure called AutoAugment to search for improved data augmentation policies. Our key insight is to create a search space of data augmentation policies, evaluating the quality of a particular policy directly on the dataset of interest. In our implementation, we have designed a search space where a policy consists of many sub-policies, one of which is randomly chosen for each image in each mini-batch. A sub-policy consists of two operations, each operation being an image processing function such as translation, rotation, or shearing, and the probabilities and magnitudes with which the functions are applied. We use a search algorithm to find the best policy such that the neural network yields the highest validation accuracy on a target dataset. Our method achieves state-of-the-art accuracy on CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, SVHN, and ImageNet (without additional data). On ImageNet, we attain a Top-1 accuracy of 83.54%. On CIFAR-10, we achieve an error rate of 1.48%, which is 0.65% better than the previous state-of-the-art. Finally, policies learned from one dataset can be transferred to work well on other similar datasets. For example, the policy learned on ImageNet allows us to achieve state-of-the-art accuracy on the fine grained visual classification dataset Stanford Cars, without fine-tuning weights pre-trained on additional data. Code to train Wide-ResNet, Shake-Shake and ShakeDrop models with AutoAugment policies can be found at https://github.com/tensorflow/models/tree/master/research/autoaugment
Terrance DeVries, Graham W. Taylor
Convolutional neural networks are capable of learning powerful representational spaces, which are necessary for tackling complex learning tasks. However, due to the model capacity required to capture such representations, they are often susceptible to overfitting and therefore require proper regularization in order to generalize well. In this paper, we show that the simple regularization technique of randomly masking out square regions of input during training, which we call cutout, can be used to improve the robustness and overall performance of convolutional neural networks. Not only is this method extremely easy to implement, but we also demonstrate that it can be used in conjunction with existing forms of data augmentation and other regularizers to further improve model performance. We evaluate this method by applying it to current state-of-the-art architectures on the CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, and SVHN datasets, yielding new state-of-the-art results with almost no additional computational cost. We also show improved performance in the low-data regime on the STL-10 dataset.
Senwei Liang, Yuehaw Khoo, Haizhao Yang
Overfitting frequently occurs in deep learning. In this paper, we propose a novel regularization method called Drop-Activation to reduce overfitting and improve generalization. The key idea is to \emph{drop} nonlinear activation functions by setting them to be identity functions randomly during training time. During testing, we use a deterministic network with a new activation function to encode the average effect of dropping activations randomly. Experimental results on CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, SVHN, and EMNIST show that Drop-Activation generally improves the performance of popular neural network architectures. Furthermore, unlike dropout, as a regularizer Drop-Activation can be used in harmony with standard training and regularization techniques such as Batch Normalization and AutoAug. Our theoretical analyses support the regularization effect of Drop-Activation as implicit parameter reduction and its capability to be used together with Batch Normalization.
Sergey Zagoruyko, Nikos Komodakis
Deep residual networks were shown to be able to scale up to thousands of layers and still have improving performance. However, each fraction of a percent of improved accuracy costs nearly doubling the number of layers, and so training very deep residual networks has a problem of diminishing feature reuse, which makes these networks very slow to train. To tackle these problems, in this paper we conduct a detailed experimental study on the architecture of ResNet blocks, based on which we propose a novel architecture where we decrease depth and increase width of residual networks. We call the resulting network structures wide residual networks (WRNs) and show that these are far superior over their commonly used thin and very deep counterparts. For example, we demonstrate that even a simple 16-layer-deep wide residual network outperforms in accuracy and efficiency all previous deep residual networks, including thousand-layer-deep networks, achieving new state-of-the-art results on CIFAR, SVHN, COCO, and significant improvements on ImageNet. Our code and models are available at https://github.com/szagoruyko/wide-residual-networks
Ke Zhang, Miao Sun, Tony X. Han, Xingfang Yuan, Liru Guo, Tao Liu
A residual-networks family with hundreds or even thousands of layers dominates major image recognition tasks, but building a network by simply stacking residual blocks inevitably limits its optimization ability. This paper proposes a novel residual-network architecture, Residual networks of Residual networks (RoR), to dig the optimization ability of residual networks. RoR substitutes optimizing residual mapping of residual mapping for optimizing original residual mapping. In particular, RoR adds level-wise shortcut connections upon original residual networks to promote the learning capability of residual networks. More importantly, RoR can be applied to various kinds of residual networks (ResNets, Pre-ResNets and WRN) and significantly boost their performance. Our experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and versatility of RoR, where it achieves the best performance in all residual-network-like structures. Our RoR-3-WRN58-4+SD models achieve new state-of-the-art results on CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100 and SVHN, with test errors 3.77%, 19.73% and 1.59%, respectively. RoR-3 models also achieve state-of-the-art results compared to ResNets on ImageNet data set.