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WMT English-Russian link
Machine translation between English and Russian.
Method (expand all | collapse all) BLEU (newstest2014) BLEU (newstest2015) BLEU (newstest2016)
Rico Sennrich, Barry Haddow, Alexandra Birch
We participated in the WMT 2016 shared news translation task by building neural translation systems for four language pairs, each trained in both directions: English<->Czech, English<->German, English<->Romanian and English<->Russian. Our systems are based on an attentional encoder-decoder, using BPE subword segmentation for open-vocabulary translation with a fixed vocabulary. We experimented with using automatic back-translations of the monolingual News corpus as additional training data, pervasive dropout, and target-bidirectional models. All reported methods give substantial improvements, and we see improvements of 4.3--11.2 BLEU over our baseline systems. In the human evaluation, our systems were the (tied) best constrained system for 7 out of 8 translation directions in which we participated.
Junyoung Chung, Kyunghyun Cho, Yoshua Bengio
The existing machine translation systems, whether phrase-based or neural, have relied almost exclusively on word-level modelling with explicit segmentation. In this paper, we ask a fundamental question: can neural machine translation generate a character sequence without any explicit segmentation? To answer this question, we evaluate an attention-based encoder-decoder with a subword-level encoder and a character-level decoder on four language pairs--En-Cs, En-De, En-Ru and En-Fi-- using the parallel corpora from WMT'15. Our experiments show that the models with a character-level decoder outperform the ones with a subword-level decoder on all of the four language pairs. Furthermore, the ensembles of neural models with a character-level decoder outperform the state-of-the-art non-neural machine translation systems on En-Cs, En-De and En-Fi and perform comparably on En-Ru.
Rico Sennrich, Barry Haddow, Alexandra Birch
Neural machine translation (NMT) models typically operate with a fixed vocabulary, but translation is an open-vocabulary problem. Previous work addresses the translation of out-of-vocabulary words by backing off to a dictionary. In this paper, we introduce a simpler and more effective approach, making the NMT model capable of open-vocabulary translation by encoding rare and unknown words as sequences of subword units. This is based on the intuition that various word classes are translatable via smaller units than words, for instance names (via character copying or transliteration), compounds (via compositional translation), and cognates and loanwords (via phonological and morphological transformations). We discuss the suitability of different word segmentation techniques, including simple character n-gram models and a segmentation based on the byte pair encoding compression algorithm, and empirically show that subword models improve over a back-off dictionary baseline for the WMT 15 translation tasks English-German and English-Russian by 1.1 and 1.3 BLEU, respectively.